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History of Kyrgyzstan


Introduction
Every traveller is always asking about history of Kyrgyzstan and that's why we prepared a short introduction of it. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will be told that, Kyrgyz used to follow nomadic way of life and it was very difficult to trace. It is important to note that, Kyrgyz people never build big cities and houses because they didn't want to destroy nature. When you travel in Kyrgyzstan, you will never find any written letters, because they preferred oral speech rather than written. Kyrgyz has 2000 years of history and its first ethnonym "Kyrgyz" appeared in 201 BC.

Prehistory (1 million years ago - 1 000 BC)
Being in Kyrgyzstan, it is much important to know about prehistory of country. It is known that, human made up a great contribution to the culture and art. One of them as Rock Art Gallery you may find in Cholpon Ata. This gallery was a spiritual center for human being in the Bronze Age period. When you travel in Kyrgyzstan, you will find 2000 images carved on stones and rocks as various images of animals as goats, bulls, horses, deers, camels, dogs and others. You can even find pictures of hunting, plowing, ritual dancing, animals with carts, labyrinths and erotic.

Ancient History (1 000 BC - 300 AD)
You have already told that, the first ethnonym "Kyrgyz" was found in 201 BC, which is written in ancient history by the Chinese historian Sima Tan, who in his chronicle "Historical notes" mentioned that, Kyrgyzs were conquered by the Hunnu. The next source says that, the first ethnonym "Kyrgyz" was found in the 1st century BC in another Chinese chronicle Han-shu (History of Han), which was written by historian Ban Gu. These chronicles based on sources on the area of Eastern Turkestan saying that, Kyrgyz state located in the east from the territory of present Kyrgyzstan in the 1st century.

Turkic Era (500-1200)
Turkic era put efforts on forming Kyrgyz state in the early Middle Ages of 6th to the 13th centuries. In this period of time, the migration of Turkic-speaking tribes from the Altai Mountains to the Central Asian region formed first Turkic dynasties. There were no records about Kyrgyz in this time. Tours in Kyrgyzstan will inspire you by the history telling that the Kyrgyz established its first Kaganate by moving on the middle Yenisei River to South Siberia in the 7th century. The ruler of this state was Barsbek ajo-king, who created the empire of Yenisei Kyrgyz on the Irtysh River in the west to the Big Khingan range in the east, from the Angara and Selenga Rivers in the north to the Gobi Desert in the south in 9th and 10th centuries. Over the time, the Russian and Soviet historian Barthold presented the term of Great Kyrgyz Empire.

The Mongol Rule (1200-1400)
The Mongol Rule marked a tragic story to the history of Kyrgyzstan in the 13th century. It was period of Mongol invasion. The creator of Mongol era was Genghis Khan, who first occupied the territory of Central Asia and then, ruined and formed the Turkic culture. Later, the Yenisei Kyrgyz joined to Genghiz Khan in 1207 and ruled for several years.

Kyrgyz start following Islam in the 12th and 15th centuries due to impact of the Persian, Arab, and Turkic traders who travelled along the Silk Road. It is worth travelling in Kyrgyzstan and to learn more about significant parts of history. 

Kyrgyz consolidation (1400-1800)
Kyrgyz consolidation was established when Kyrgyz people moved from South Siberia to the territory of present Kyrgyzstan in 15th century. Kyrgyz wanted to build its own state, but finally formed ethno-political system of two wings and center, which included a lot of many tribes. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will see that, each tribe was independent as the ancient Greek city-states and longed for four centuries.

Russian Colonization (1770-1917)
In the period of Russian Colonization, Kyrgyz people were protected by the Russian army, who promised to protect them from Kazakh and Chinese threats. Over the time, Russian army asked Kazakh to join them as well, but they were against and refused. Later, Russian army forced Kazakh to be a part of Russian Colonization. Finally Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan were protected under Russian army. All together they established a new administrative-territorial system. In this period of time Kyrgyz started develop its state and everything was on better way. During your tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will have opportunity to see the development of Kyrgyz state which started forming the nomadic way of life and agricultural economy. We would be grateful if you travel in Kyrgyzstan and get new experience of Kyrgyz history.

Soviet Rule (1917-1991)
The Soviet rule has started when Bolsheviks came to the power in 1917. In the course of a tour in Kyrgyzstan, you will be told about impact of Bolsheviks who opened a new page to the history of Kyrgyzstan. A socialist society made efforts to the equality of people and government of Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan met by the fruitful political, economic and cultural development of country. In this time, the development of the system of elementary, secondary and higher education, professional literature, theatre, painting, cinema, science and the establishment of a large-scale heavy metal processing industry and machinery appeared. Kyrgyzstan formed its autonomous region and later an autonomous republic, which made him to be independent thanks to Bolsheviks.

Independent Kyrgyzstan (since 1991)
Independent Kyrgyzstan achieved its status after a great contribution of Bolsheviks, which marked a light page to the history of Kyrgyzstan. In the course of your tours in Kyrgyzstan, you will see the national attributes of Kyrgyz Republic as national flag, emblem and anthem. The constitution of Kyrgyz Republic was highlighted in 1993 and then it became a part of UN on 2nd of March 1992. The prosperity of Kyrgyzstan longed for a short period of time. Over the time, the independence of Kyrgyz Republic has gone. The standard living of people met a mass unemployment. The Kyrgyz state faced with a big political, economic and social crisis which led of two revolutions of overthrow presidents in 2005 and 2010 years. It was period of tragic page of Kyrgyzstan. Few years later, Kyrgyzstan achieved political stabilization, social and economic development which led to the cultural rise. In the result, the country took a part of referendum in 2010 and move from a presidential to a parliamentary system. In 2017, the power of new president took part and Kyrgyzstan became an independent republic.