The territory of modern Kyrgyzstan has been conquered by many different people, lots of troops as those of Djingis Khan, crossed the region.
The first people have been living here already thousands of years ago - the up to 5000-year-old stone inscriptions and the 3000-year-old town of Osh point at it. The nomadic people of the Kyrgyz are one of the oldest of Central Asia and first came here about 2000 years ago. They went south, coming from the Siberian region Yenisey and formed the Kyrgyz Khanate at the beginning of the first millennium.
During the 6th century, the Karakhanid Khanate was built up, composed of Turkic tribes. One of the most important cities was the town of Balasagun , of which today one still can visit the Burana-tower, only 1 hour drive from Bishkek.
In the 13th century, the empire was defeated by Djingis Khan, who then established the Mongol Khanate. After the death of the powerful emperor Mongke the Khanate was split up into many small ones, and the region of modern Kyrgyzstan was part of the Chagatai Khanate.
Later, this was transformed into the Kokand Khanate, dominated by Uzbeks, but after an uprise in the years 1873 - 1874 the region became part of the Russian Empire, and, after the October Revolution, of the Soviet Union - since 1936 one of the 16 Soviet Republics.
In 1991, the country became independent and since then is known as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.